Receding Gums


Receding gums is a condition where the roots of the teeth are exposed due to loss of gum tissue.




Aggressive brushing
Wear and tear due to age
Plaque or tartar formation
Gum disease
Grinding or clenching the teeth
Pressure on teeth due to incorrect bite
Smoking or tobacco consumption



Sensitive teeth
Longer than normal teeth
Large spaces between the teeth
Swollen gums
Bleeding gums
Bad breath

Changing to a more gentle brushing style
Dental cleaning or scaling for plaque or tartar control
Correcting the bite
Desensitizing agents
Gum tissue grafting surgery to replace the gums



Maintaining good oral hygiene
Using correct brushing techniques
Avoiding Smoking and tobacco consumption
Avoiding piercings in the mouth or lips


Source: Apollo Life




Menstrual cycle gives information about the overall health state of an adolescent and adult female. Menstrual issues are the largest component of health disorders faced by women.


Menstruation is the shedding of the uterine lining.  It starts at the onset of puberty (around 12 – 13 years of age) and ends at menopause (47 – 52 years). It usually occurs once every 21-40 days and lasts for about 2 to 7 days.


Changes occurring at puberty


Increase in height, about 25 to 30 cm, in 2 to 5 yrs. The growth spurt includes growth of legs, chest, abdomen, and growth of the bony pelvis.
Increase in weight 15 to 20 kg, in 2 to 5 years.
Changes in body contour.
Growth and development of sex organs.
Appearance of secondary sexual characters such as development of breast bud and growth of pubic hair.
First menstrual period => menarche.

Terms related to menstrual flow


Menorrhagia => Excessive bleeding lasting for more than 7 days, requiring to change pads every 2 to 3 hrs, and blood loss more than 80ml

Polymenorrhagia => Frequent menstruation and increased bleeding, earlier than 20 days

Oligomenorrhea => Infrequent menstrual periods

Menometrorrhagia => Prolonged and excessive bleeding, occurring irregularly and more frequently.


When do u need to consult a Gynecologist?


If, you haven’t started menstruating by 16 yrs experience sudden stoppage of “periods” bleed excessively, or for more days than usual suddenly feel sick after using tampons bleed between periods have severe pain during your “periods”.


Common problems of menstruation


Painful menstruation or dysmenorrhea
Most common complaint in the OPD, typically pain in the lower abdomen. Starts with the onset of flow, lasting for 1 to 2 days, it is due to uterine contractions.  It is usually associated with lower backache and pain in the inner thighs. Some women may also occasionally have associated nausea, vomiting, bloating, fluid retention, headache, diarrhea and fainting episodes.



Take adequate rest
Avoid coffee, tea
Drink plenty of liquids
Apply heat to aching site to get relief
Yoga and stretching exercises
If severe pain – pain killers under medical advice
Irregular periods
Common in the first 1 to 2 yrs after menarche and is usually anovulatory. It also occurs in 30% of women in the reproductive age group. Occurs mostly as a result of hormonal signals that have been thrown out of sync.



Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Severe physical exertion as in athletes
In extreme weight loss
Thyroid abnormalities



Reduce your stress levels
Take time to meditate, relax, or just hang out
Don’t over exercise
Correct your eating disorder
Hormone supplements, in consultation with a gynecologist


Abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period, with blood loss greater than 80 ml or lasting longer than 7 days. It is estimated by number of tampons or pads, changed in a day. A fully soaked tampon or pad can hold about 5ml of blood.



Pregnancy related
Disorders of coagulation
Excessive build up in endometrial lining, due to hormonal imbalance
Fibroids of uterus
Pelvic infection
Others – Obesity, Anovulation, Irregular hormone treatment



Consult your doctor at the earliest
Reduce weight
Lifestyle modifications
Treat anaemia
Medication with doctor’s prescription
Premenstrual syndrome

It is due to extra water content in the body. It can cause physical and behavioral changes, which starts 1 week prior to the onset of periods. Physical symptoms are headache, lethargy, tiredness, swelling or pain of the breasts, abdomen, appetite changes and frequency of urination. Behavioural symptoms like sudden mood changes; irritability, depression, hostility and anxiety can also be seen.



No medication is necessary, needs healthy lifestyle modification
Avoid salty food
Exercise regularly
Balanced diet
Abnormal vaginal discharge
Some pearly white discharge during the period of ovulation and prior to having menses is quite normal.



Consult a doctor if discharge is smelly, greenish or yellow colored. Also if profuse, produces itching in the genital area, and causes pain and burning while passing urine.
Rule out diabetes, anaemia and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Urinary infection

Frequent urination, burning sensation, itching, fever and chills are the presenting symptoms.Drink at least 8 glasses of water. Wash with water from front to back after urinating or defecating and do not hold back the urge to urinate. It is advisable to use clean cotton underwear and importantly maintain proper menstrual hygiene.

Menstrual hygiene and preventive measures


To improve the reproductive health of girls and women by increasing the accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability of sanitary napkins and other protection materials for menstrual hygiene.

Good hygiene is very important during menses. It helps in preventing infection, itching and bad odour.

Take bath twice daily
Wear well fitting cotton panties
Wash hands with soap and water after using toilet
Wash genitalia with water after urination
Wash the inner sides of the thighs and the skin folds well with soap and water while bathing
Dry these regions well
Change the napkin at least 2 or 3 times a day, at every 4-6 hour interval
Pads have replaced the clothes, for good hygiene and infection free periods. Tampons and Menstrual cups are also used. Tampons have to be inserted in the vagina, but take care to change them more frequently to avoid any toxic shock syndromes. Menstrual cups are small cups which are inserted into the vagina and the blood is collected in it. They have to be emptied and washed and can be reused.


How to dispose a napkin


It can be discarded in the dustbin after wrapping in paper
They can also be disposed off in incinerators specially made for them

Content Source Credit: Apollo Lets Talk Health

What are the different vaccines an individual would require during childhood?


Children do not have a fully developed immune system from birth and require more protection after birth. This protection is usually given in the form of vaccines so that children do not catch commonly occurring illnesses. Here are some of them:


DTap (Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis)

This vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. While diphtheria is a respiratory disease which causes paralysis, breathing problems, heart failure and death, tetanus is a bacterial infection that brings about muscle spasms and death, if left untreated. Pertussis, on the other hand, also known as a whooping cough, is another deadly disease that causes pneumonia, seizures and even brain damage. The first dose is given when the baby is 2 months, the second at four months, the third at six months and the 4th at 15 months after birth.



Polio is the paralysis of certain parts of your body. The virus that causes this condition is spread through contaminated food and water or the more frequently fecal-oral mode. However, this disease has been much reduced thanks to the polio vaccine that is given till the age of 5 years on certain days.


MMR(Measles, mumps, rubella)

MMR protects your baby against measles, mumps and rubella. Measles leads to coughing, a high fever, a runny nose, conjunctivitis as well as a rash that starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. The MMR has to be administered from one year to 15 months of age.


Chickenpox (varicella)

Chickenpox is a disease in which you get a lot of itchy rashes in your body as well as headaches. Even instances of coughing are very common. It can easily be prevented by giving your baby a chickenpox vaccine, which is called varicella (as that is the virus which causes it). The varicella or chickenpox vaccine has to be administered from one year to 15 months of age.


Hepatitis A and B

Hepatitis A and B are viruses, which cause the inflammation of the liver. It can lead to life-threatening problems however there are very few symptoms of it. You should vaccinate your baby with hepatitis B at birth and hepatitis A at one year of age. Hepatitis B vaccines should have another dose given one or two months after birth and the third 6 to 15 months after birth.



The flu is caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms of the flu include headaches, body aches, high fevers, chills, fatigue and exhaustion. Since there is a flu ‘season’, it has to be administered annually starting from 6 to 15 months of age.



The meningococcal vaccine is usually used to prevent meningitis caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides. Meningitis is the inflammation of the tissues in the brain and/or spinal cord. Sometimes, it can even cause a life-threatening blood infection, which can lead to amputation, hearing loss, problems with the nervous system, mental retardation, seizures and strokes. These however, only have to be administered at 12 years of age.



The rotavirus bug is a lethal virus. It occurs primarily in young children and causes gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting. It has to be taken twice once at 2 months of age and once at four months of age.

Finally, do consult a doctor about how and when to administer these vaccines.


Content Source Credit: Apollo Clinic


Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed by the Doctors are their independent professional judgment and is provided for educational purposes only. This should not be considered as a substitute for Physician's advice. Please consult your treating Physician for more details.?

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