What are the different vaccines an individual would require during childhood?


Children do not have a fully developed immune system from birth and require more protection after birth. This protection is usually given in the form of vaccines so that children do not catch commonly occurring illnesses. Here are some of them:


DTap (Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis)

This vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. While diphtheria is a respiratory disease which causes paralysis, breathing problems, heart failure and death, tetanus is a bacterial infection that brings about muscle spasms and death, if left untreated. Pertussis, on the other hand, also known as a whooping cough, is another deadly disease that causes pneumonia, seizures and even brain damage. The first dose is given when the baby is 2 months, the second at four months, the third at six months and the 4th at 15 months after birth.



Polio is the paralysis of certain parts of your body. The virus that causes this condition is spread through contaminated food and water or the more frequently fecal-oral mode. However, this disease has been much reduced thanks to the polio vaccine that is given till the age of 5 years on certain days.


MMR(Measles, mumps, rubella)

MMR protects your baby against measles, mumps and rubella. Measles leads to coughing, a high fever, a runny nose, conjunctivitis as well as a rash that starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body. The MMR has to be administered from one year to 15 months of age.


Chickenpox (varicella)

Chickenpox is a disease in which you get a lot of itchy rashes in your body as well as headaches. Even instances of coughing are very common. It can easily be prevented by giving your baby a chickenpox vaccine, which is called varicella (as that is the virus which causes it). The varicella or chickenpox vaccine has to be administered from one year to 15 months of age.


Hepatitis A and B

Hepatitis A and B are viruses, which cause the inflammation of the liver. It can lead to life-threatening problems however there are very few symptoms of it. You should vaccinate your baby with hepatitis B at birth and hepatitis A at one year of age. Hepatitis B vaccines should have another dose given one or two months after birth and the third 6 to 15 months after birth.



The flu is caused by the influenza virus. Symptoms of the flu include headaches, body aches, high fevers, chills, fatigue and exhaustion. Since there is a flu ‘season’, it has to be administered annually starting from 6 to 15 months of age.



The meningococcal vaccine is usually used to prevent meningitis caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitides. Meningitis is the inflammation of the tissues in the brain and/or spinal cord. Sometimes, it can even cause a life-threatening blood infection, which can lead to amputation, hearing loss, problems with the nervous system, mental retardation, seizures and strokes. These however, only have to be administered at 12 years of age.



The rotavirus bug is a lethal virus. It occurs primarily in young children and causes gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting. It has to be taken twice once at 2 months of age and once at four months of age.

Finally, do consult a doctor about how and when to administer these vaccines.


Content Source Credit: Apollo Clinic


Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed by the Doctors are their independent professional judgment and is provided for educational purposes only. This should not be considered as a substitute for Physician's advice. Please consult your treating Physician for more details.?

Home remedies for sciatica pain



The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that runs from the lower back down through each leg. Sciatica pain arises due to irritation, compression, and inflammation of the sciatic nerve. The pattern of pain usually starts from the lower back and then extends towards thigh and leg.


For many people, sciatica pain is miserably unbearable as it can induce numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected leg and a sudden shooting pain that causes difficulty while standing and sitting.


To name a few, the underlying causes of Sciatica pain includes herniated or slipped disc, a spinal injury or infection, pregnancy, etc.


Dr. Sheshanna, Orthopedician, Apollo clinic Chandanagar, Hyderabad explains that the various conventional treatments available for sciatica may only ease the pain temporarily. Other than this, the steroid injections might land you in difficulty as they have the potential to cause serious side effects. So, natural therapies are a boon to the patients of sciatica pain.


So here are some home remedies and natural therapies that can be used to get rid of shooting pain of sciatica are:



Fenugreek seeds can help in minimizing sciatica pain because of anti-inflammatory properties. Soak a teaspoon of fenugreek seeds in water overnight, Strain the water in the morning, and drink it early in the morning to relieve pain.



Garlic can also help relieve sciatica pain. You can consume it in a raw or cooked form. Also, you can add four cloves of garlic to boiling milk and drink it.


Nutmeg Powder

Roast some nutmeg powder in a tablespoon of gingelly oil. Cool the mixture and then apply it onto the affected areas.


Mustard Oil

Add 3-4 cloves to boiling mustard oil. Allow the oil to cool down and then massage it onto the affected area.


Potato Juice

Mix the potato juice with carrot juice and drink it two times a day. It will reduce the irritation of the sciatic nerve and ease the movement of the leg.



Turmeric contains a compound called curcumin that assists in reducing nerve pain and inflammation. Use turmeric in cooking, or apply it topically in a paste form for the best benefits or add one tsp of turmeric in a cup of milk and consume it daily.


Cold or hot packs

Use cold packs or hot packs to get relief from pain.



In addition to rest, a regular physical exercise is highly beneficial to get rid of sciatica pain. A regular exercise program also helps to strengthen the abdominal and back muscles. Strengthening the core muscles facilitate quick recovery from pain.


Content Source Credit: Apollo Clinic

Don't mistake dengue fever for influenza

Dengue fever is often mistaken for viral influenza. This mistake often aggravates the disease, which can lead to hospitalisation. So, it is vital that we equip and educate ourselves about ways to detect and prevent dengue fever.


The Aedes mosquito transmits the disease. Dengue fever, has gripped India along with malaria. Neighbouring Pakistan has cultivated fishes in large water bodies. These fishes feed off larvae controlling the growth of mosquitoes. But this theory cannot work for urban areas where construction is rampant. Recognise the immediate signs and symptoms of dengue fever to receive timely treatment.


Signs and symptoms of dengue fever:


Sadly dengue fever symptoms appear after four to six days, but watch out for these signs:


1. High fever
2. Severe headaches
3. Area behind the eye will experience pain.
4. You will experience pain in the joints, bone and muscle and should not be mistaken for weakness.
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Outburst of skin rash will also surface.
7. You will experience bleeding like the gums or nose bleeds.
8. In severe cases, bleeding under the skin which will appear like bruising.
9. Abdominal pain
10. In later stages, you can also experience problems with lungs, liver or heart.


If you experience a combination of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately. On his advice, a blood test may confirm dengue fever. But self-medication with antibiotics, home remedies or procrastination will lead to severe dengue fever symptoms like bleeding, abdominal pain or enlarged liver, poor functioning of lungs or poor blood circulation. Those with weak immunity or those who regularly fall sick are prone to developing severe dengue fever symptoms.


Source Times Of India



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