Urinary infections (also called bladder infections) are caused when there is an infection in any part of the urinary system (kidneys, bladder, and urethra). In India, more than 10 million cases of urinary infections are reported every year. As we believe “Prevention is better than Cure,” we discuss some helpful tips to prevent urinary infections.


Drink plenty of water:

It is highly advisable to drink 8-10 glasses of water daily to get rid of harmful bacteria via increased urine output. Drinking plenty of water also helps to dilute concentrated urine and thus reduce multiplication of bacteria.


Practice good toilet hygiene:

Practicing proper toilet hygiene protects against urinary infections. Ensure that you always wipe your genitals from front to back after the bowel movements to stop spreading of bacteria to the urethra.

Women during menstrual period must change their sanitary napkins as and when required as spoiled pads can invite bacterial growth.


Appropriate clothing:

The moist environment in your genital area helps bacteria thrive rapidly. Avoid wearing tight jeans and skin fit clothes that trap moisture and create a breeding ground for bacteria.

Wearing cotton undergarments, skirts, and loose pants promote free air circulation and prevent pathogenic bacteria entering the bladder.


Frequent urination:

Do not hold urine for long periods as bacteria thrive in concentrated urine. Empty your bladder as soon as you feel the need to urinate.



Avoiding bladder-irritating foods (caffeinated and carbonated drinks, spicy dishes, nicotine and artificial sweeteners) is an excellent way to reduce your symptoms during urinary infections.

Vitamin C, primarily available in citrus fruits is effective in preventing urinary infections by averting the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria attached to the urinary tract.


Maintain balanced vaginal flora:

Naturally defensive bacteria present in vagina fight off infection and maintains friendly flora. But, use of potentially irritating feminine hygiene products like scented douches, sprays or talcum powders in the genital area can upset this balance.


Any imbalance in the vaginal flora allows pathogenic bacteria to flourish and cause urinary infections. Ensure to include probiotic supplements (yogurt, cultured vegetables) to your diet which helps to maintain friendly flora and keeps infection causing bacteria at bay.


Change your birth control method:

Dr. Anita Bapat, Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Apollo clinic Aundh, Pune explains that commonly used birth control methods like Diaphragms, spermicide, or unlubricated condoms can irritate the sensitive mucosal membrane and contribute to uncontrolled bacterial growth in the genital area, resulting in urinary infections. The doctor recommends the women who get frequent urinary infections to opt for alternative methods of birth control like pills to avoid infections.


Content Source Credit: Apollo Clinic





Knowing the risk factors for breast cancer is the first step to understanding the disease,


Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Indian women. Dr. Wahida Suresh, Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Apollo clinic Kotturpuram, Chennai explains that 1 in every 28 women in India can develop breast cancer at any stage of her life. The latest report from WHO implied that about 76000 women in India die because of this condition every year.


The number can be even worse if we are not aware of the risks of breast cancer, its early diagnosis, and proper treatment. This article discusses the risks of breast cancer. Anyone carrying any such risk must be encouraged to have regular breast exams and yearly mammography.



Age is the most significant factor that influences the risk for breast cancer. The older you are, the higher the risk. Most of the breast cancer cases can be seen in women over 50 years of age.


Family history:

Having a significant family history (having a blood relative like a parent or a sibling with breast cancer) may increase the risk for breast cancer.


Genetic mutations:

Women who have inherited mutations in genes (changes in the structure of genes) like BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are at higher risk of breast cancer. Genetic mutations can be determined through genetic testing. Women who have significant family history of ovarian and breast cancer are recommended to get genetic testing so that early detection can be made.



Obesity, especially after menopause, is linked to breast cancer. Excess amounts of fat in the body contribute to a high estrogen level which is a contributing factor for breast cancer development.


Dense breast tissue:

Having high breast density is inherited and carries the risk of cancerous tumors. Women with dense breast contain less fat tissue and more fibrous and glandular tissue which increase the risk of breast cancer. High-density breasts also play a role in delayed diagnosis as their tumors are not easily visible on a mammogram.


Menstrual and reproductive history:

Women who got their periods before the age of 12 or who got their menopause later than the average age of 52 years has a slightly higher risk of developing breast cancer. Women who had delayed pregnancy and never had a pregnancy may also have a risk for breast cancer.


Previous treatments:

A woman previously treated with Combined Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), birth control pills for longer periods, Diethylstilbestrol (DES), or chest radiation therapy for other cancers have significantly increased the risk for breast cancer.


Research suggests that the breast cancer risk also increases with smoking, alcohol consumption, not being physically active and poor diet.


Having one or more symptoms is not always a cancer sign. It is important to get diagnosed with the doctor.


Content Source Credit:Apollo Clinic






Kidney stones are the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Kidney stones form inside a kidney when the normal substances in the urine become concentrated. Under such conditions, solid materials may stay inside your kidney, or pass down your urinary tract, and may eventually be passed out of your body.

Kidney stones often don’t show symptoms, especially during the early stages. They may be passed down through the urine on their own, when they are small. However, bigger sized stones may block the flow of urine, causing a number of painful symptoms which may be serious.


Common kidney stone symptoms include the following:

Pain below the ribs, on either side and the back
Pain during urination
Pain spreading to the lower abdomen and groin
Pain coming in waves that fluctuate in intensity
Pink, brown or red urine
Foul-smelling and cloudy urine
Constant urge to urinate
Nausea and vomiting
More frequent needs to urinate
Urinating small amounts
Fever and chills when there is an infection

Clock clues:

If you are not quite certain about the symptoms of pain that you are facing being related to kidney stone or some other issues, your body clock may help you find that out. Pain due to kidney stones usually starts early in the morning. This happens mostly because people urinate less frequently at night through early morning, and so the ureter remains constricted in the morning.


Confirming your symptoms:

If you find yourself suffering from any of such symptoms, you must visit a doctor immediately. Your doctor will assist in confirming the presence of kidney stones by administering diagnostic tests. Based on the specific symptoms experienced by you, your doctor may suggest you to get a blood or urine test.


Blood reports will suggest that you have kidney stones if your blood shows presence of high levels of calcium or uric acid. A urine test will confirm the same if it shows presence of other excretions along with urine. An imaging test will actually show you whether you have stones in your kidney.


When to call a doctor


If you see any of the following signs and symptoms, you must immediately consult an urologist:

A severe pain for which you are not able to sit or stand for a long time in a comfortable position
Difficulty in passing urine
Blood passed along with urine
Pain accompanied by nausea or vomiting
Pain accompanied by fever and chills

How to recover from kidney stones

Your doctor may suggest you to drink a lot of water during the initial stages, since it is easier to pass the stones through urine that gets dissolved into water as you drink more and more water. You may also be given medications.
For severe cases, you may be require to go through a surgery. Your urologist will help to determine the appropriate treatment required for you and suggest other preventive measures to solve problems of kidney stones.

If you are facing any of these problems or you have any further queries about kidney stones or kidney stone treatment, feel free to consult a doctor to solve all your problems.


Content Source Credit: Apollo Clinic

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